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Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

PREFACE                                                    ix
We sailed from Seattle June 24, 1909, on the Alaska Coast Co.'s steamer, Portland, reaching Yakutat five days later. Here we spent about six weeks. We traveled and transferred our food and camp equipment in a twenty-eight foot whaleboat, equipped with a four-horse-power gasoline engine. We occupied two main camps and seven temporary camps in Yakutat Bay. We left Yakutat on August 14th, taking our launch upon the steamer from Yakutat to Valdez. Two days apiece were devoted to brief examinations of Valdez, Shoup, and Columbia glaciers, in eastern Prince William Sound, traveling in our launch, and camps being occupied at Fort Liscum opposite Valdez, on Heather Island, near Columbia Glacier, and on Flemming's Spit just outside Cordova. Two days were devoted to a hurried view of the Miles, Childs, and Allen glaciers of lower Copper River, the authors being taken by railway automobile to the end of the line, as then completed, and entertained at the railway construction camps. We left Cordova September 1 on the Northern Navigation Company's steamer Lindsay, reaching Seattle ten days later.
During the field season of 1910, the junior author and his party spent only two weeks in Yakutat Bay, June 11 to 26, occupying five camps and traveling in the launch, which had been purchased the previous year by the Society. The party was then taken to Prince William Sound, where a special trip of Alaska Coast Company's steamer Bertha landed us on Heather Island near Columbia Glacier. In the following six weeks, we traveled by launch clear around Prince William Sound, reaching Cordova on August 12, after occupying ten camps in the fiords near the several glaciers and on Latouche and Hinchinbrook Islands. Three weeks were then devoted to the glaciers of the lower Copper River. We worked as far north as Heney Glacier and had four camps along the Copper River and Northwestern Railway near the larger glaciers. The junior author also spent three days in a rapid railway and steamboat trip through the Copper River canyon to Chitina. A week was occupied in a launch trip from Cordova to Columbia Glacier and Valdez, whence the party sailed for Seattle on the Alaska Steamship 'Company's steamer Northwestern on September 9.
In 1911 the junior author went north alone, leaving Seattle June 5 on the Alaska Steamship Company's steamer Alameda, making a rapid reconnoissance trip to Valdez Glacier and through Prince William Sound to Seward and back to Cordova, after which he spent the time from June 15 to 20 at the glaciers of the lower Copper River. He was joined by the senior author and after another trip through Prince William Sound and to Columbia Glacier and a study of glaciers in the Kenai Peninsula along the Alaska Northern Railway, we went through the Copper River canyon by train, saw something of the conditions of glaciation in a day's work at Wood Canyon, and then worked the remainder of the season on the glaciers and glaciation of the interior and of southeastern Alaska.
In 1913 the junior author was guide for an excursion of the International Geological Congress which visited Yakutat Bay in September. The party consisted of about 50 geologists from all parts of the world. We travelled and lived on the specially-chartered Canadian Pacific steamer Princess Maquinna, and landed at a number of points, as described in later pages of this book.
Preliminary reports of the results obtained in 1909 and 1910 were published in the National Geographic Magazine for January, 1910, and June, 1911. The junior author lectured before the Society in Washington on February 18, 1910.
The phenomena of advancing glaciers observed in Yakutat Bay by the U. S. Geological